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Research Article

Journal of Ginseng Culture 2021; 3(1): 1-10

Published online March 2, 2021

https://doi.org/10.23076/jgc.2021.3.001

© Korean Society of Gingseng

Origin and evolution of Korean ginseng revealed by genome sequence

Cho, Woohyeon*, Shim, Hyeonah**, Yang, Tae-Jin***

*College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University
**College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU
***College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU

Correspondence to :
*College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University(Email:whyeonc@snu.ac.kr)
**College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU(Email:ehs1681@snu.ac.kr)
***College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU(Email:tjyang@snu.ac.kr)

Received: January 19, 2021; Revised: February 1, 2021; Accepted: February 3, 2021

This is an Open Access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Panax ginseng (Ginseng or Korean ginseng) is one of the most important medicinal herbs in the world. We made a high-quality whole genome sequence of P. ginseng using 'Chunpoong' cultivar, which is the first cultivar registered in Korea Seed and Variety Service (KSVS) with relatively similar genotypes and superior phenotypes, representing approximately 3 Gbp and 60,000 genes. Genome sequence analyses of P. ginseng and related speciesrevealed the origin of Korean ginseng and the ecological adaptation of 18 Panax species around the world. Korean ginseng and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius) are tetraploid species having 24 chromosome pairs, while the other 16 species are diploid species with 12 chromosome pairs. Panax and Aralia are the closest genera belonging to the Araliaceae family that diverged approximately 8 million years ago (MYA). All Panax species evolved as shade plants adapting to cool climates and low light conditions under the canopy of deep forests from Southeast Asia such as Vietnam to Northeast Asia such as Russia approximately 6 MYA. However, through recurrent ice ages and global warming, most diploid Panax species disappeared due to the freezing winter, while tetraploid P. ginseng may have appeared by allotetraploidization, which contributed to the adaptation to cold temperaturesin Northeast Asian countries including the Korea peninsula approximately 2 MYA. American ginseng evolved by the adaptation of P. ginseng in Northeast America after the intercontinental migration 1 MYA. Meanwhile, most of diploid Panax species survived in high-altitude mountains over 1,600 meters in Southeast Asia because they could not endure the hot temperature and freezing cold. The genome sequence provides good basisto unveil the origin and evolution of ginseng and also supports practical gene chips which is useful for breeding and the ginseng industry.

Keywords: Panax ginseng , Panax genus , evolution , genome analysis , polyploidization , intercontinental migration

Article

Research Article

Journal of Ginseng Culture 2021; 3(1): 1-10

Published online March 2, 2021 https://doi.org/10.23076/jgc.2021.3.001

Copyright © Korean Society of Gingseng.

Origin and evolution of Korean ginseng revealed by genome sequence

Cho, Woohyeon*, Shim, Hyeonah**, Yang, Tae-Jin***

*College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University
**College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU
***College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU

Correspondence to:*College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University(Email:whyeonc@snu.ac.kr)
**College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU(Email:ehs1681@snu.ac.kr)
***College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SNU(Email:tjyang@snu.ac.kr)

Received: January 19, 2021; Revised: February 1, 2021; Accepted: February 3, 2021

This is an Open Access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Panax ginseng (Ginseng or Korean ginseng) is one of the most important medicinal herbs in the world. We made a high-quality whole genome sequence of P. ginseng using 'Chunpoong' cultivar, which is the first cultivar registered in Korea Seed and Variety Service (KSVS) with relatively similar genotypes and superior phenotypes, representing approximately 3 Gbp and 60,000 genes. Genome sequence analyses of P. ginseng and related speciesrevealed the origin of Korean ginseng and the ecological adaptation of 18 Panax species around the world. Korean ginseng and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius) are tetraploid species having 24 chromosome pairs, while the other 16 species are diploid species with 12 chromosome pairs. Panax and Aralia are the closest genera belonging to the Araliaceae family that diverged approximately 8 million years ago (MYA). All Panax species evolved as shade plants adapting to cool climates and low light conditions under the canopy of deep forests from Southeast Asia such as Vietnam to Northeast Asia such as Russia approximately 6 MYA. However, through recurrent ice ages and global warming, most diploid Panax species disappeared due to the freezing winter, while tetraploid P. ginseng may have appeared by allotetraploidization, which contributed to the adaptation to cold temperaturesin Northeast Asian countries including the Korea peninsula approximately 2 MYA. American ginseng evolved by the adaptation of P. ginseng in Northeast America after the intercontinental migration 1 MYA. Meanwhile, most of diploid Panax species survived in high-altitude mountains over 1,600 meters in Southeast Asia because they could not endure the hot temperature and freezing cold. The genome sequence provides good basisto unveil the origin and evolution of ginseng and also supports practical gene chips which is useful for breeding and the ginseng industry.

Keywords: Panax ginseng , Panax genus , evolution , genome analysis , polyploidization , intercontinental migration

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Journal of Ginseng Culture

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